‘Good’ behaviour at school – not so good at home?

Note – this is not applicable to all individuals with autism, nor all schools!!!

Regarding autism and whether it is possible for children to display different behaviours at home compared to school – this is something that over the years probably hundreds of parents have asked me about. So often the message is a similar (and familiar) one – that at school the child ‘behaves’ well, while at home things can get…well, kinda out of hand! This results in huge frustration for parents who cannot seem to get school to accept that behaviour at home is so different to that at school, with school insisting that ‘everything must be ok’ [NB I am not suggesting that all schools respond in this way, many will be highly supportive of the family).


It is very clearly documented (by parents and professionals, as well as organisations such as the NAS) that many children with autism (though not all) will display considerably different behaviours in different settings. This can be as a result of a wide range of reasons, from central coherence abilities, to environmental factors, to differing levels of stress in different situations. A reasonably common pattern in terms of school/home behaviour is that the child may appear to present with no problems at school, but at home there can be major issues in terms of behaviour. Often, the result is that either school simply do not believe that the child they see at school can be displaying the reported behaviours at home, or that school erroneously believe that because the behaviours are only seen at home then the causing factors for the behaviour must also be situated there. This is not always the case, and it is of imperative importance that all parties involved recognise the serious nature of high levels of distress, and recognise that all aspects of the individual’s life may be a contributory factor towards high arousal – which, in turn, may manifest in behavioural issues. This can lead well into adulthood – for example I know several people whose behaviour at work appears to demonstrate no problem at all, whereas the reality is that they are in high states of anxiety and stress, to the point of self injury at home, and, in some cases, anxiety and depression. This demonstrates just how important it is that all concerned recognise this reasonably common autism related pattern as early as possible, in order to support the child (or adult) well. Just because a child has the ability to ‘mask’ their autism at school does not mean that they are not greatly impacted by their autism on a daily basis. In fact, it is often this ‘masking’ behaviour (acting, or copying other children) that lead school to believe that there is no problem at school; however, it may be that the child is behaving in this way precisely because they are stressed and have discovered that by copying others they can ‘hide’ their very real problems. When at home, all of the emotional distress may then be released in what is seen as a safe environment. The irony is that in some cases, it is the stress and anxiety experienced at school that subsequently lead to the copying behaviour and subsequent meltdowns at home!

Good at homework – not so good at exams?

Differences between exams and homework from an autism perspective


Some autistic students will demonstrate a good academic standard when completing homework, and yet perform less well when faced with exams. This is clearly not the case for all students, but it is essential that there is an understanding within educational establishments that there may be good reasons behind the disparities so that measures can be taken to ensure that the student is not unfairly discriminated against during exam times. Under the Equality Act students are ‘allowed’ ‘reasonable adjustments’ so that they do not face unlawful discrimination as a result of being autistic, so an understanding of how an autistic student might engage with exams is essential; both so that the student can be given the opportunities to meet their potential, and that a school does not act unlawfully.

Key Differences

Key differences between abilities to engage successfully with homework compared to examinations include:

  • Familiar environment
  • Choice
  • Time

Familiar environment

Autistic students can be hugely affected by their environments. It is very likely that there will be a direct correlation between levels of arousal (emotional, sensory, anxiety, etc.) and ability to perform cognitively, so it is vital for all autistic students to be as calm as possible in exam conditions in order for them to perform to their best abilities. Homework (as the name implies) is usually undertaken at home, where the individual is able to identify and access an area in which they are most comfortable to engage in intellectual pursuits. This might be in a very quiet area on their own, or under the covers in bed – each student will likely have their own, preferred, location in which they feel most comfortable. This option is unlikely to be afforded them during exams, which may be a considerable factor to take into account when considering potential disparities between achievement at exams compared to performances with homework.


At home all sorts of choices are likely to be available to the student which is not usually the case for exams. Of particular note, the learning style of the student is likely to be more adhered to at home (often with support from a parent) which is not something that most exams take into account. It is important to note that support around learning styles is not a case of a parent ‘doing it for them’, but rather a parent who has a good understanding of the communication and learning style of the student being able to interpret tasks and present them in an ‘autism friendly’ manner. This ‘translation’ between the predominant neurotype (PNT) modus operandi and the autism cognitive style can make all the difference between a student understanding what is needed, compared to misunderstanding of tasks and wasted energies going in to providing work unrelated to what is required.

In addition to the sorts of support provided by a ‘mentor’ the student will have more choice available to them at home related to their own autism preferences. These are individual to each student and can cover a wide range of aspects of learning – everything from choosing their preferred sensory environment through to ascertaining how long is required to process information.


One of the most critical aspects of homework that works in the favour of the autistic student compared to exams is the duration they have in which to complete. Many autistic students have slow processing time, which means that longer is required for them to complete tasks relative to their PNT peers. Without limitations on time the pressure under which the student works is considerably reduced, which allows the student a better chance of optimising their cognitive capabilities. It may be that the autistic student requires much more time to process information and formulate responses than their peers, and it is often the case that because this occurs ‘behind closed doors’ that schools may not appreciate just how long certain tasks can take. Of course, students will be set tasks at school, which can give teaching staff an indicator of how long the student might require; nonetheless, the time ‘allowed’ for homework compared to exams can be a poignant factor in understanding why a student may fare well in homework tasks and yet not achieve similar results come exam time.


Factors to consider during exams

  • Ambiguity of questions
  • Writing skills
  • Monotropic style

Ambiguity of questions

Many autistic students will process language accurately (or literally). If a question is not absolutely clear, or if there are ambiguities, then there is an increased risk of the student answering the question in an incorrect manner. It is important, therefore, to, make sure that the student has a fair opportunity to ascertain the meaning of the questions and what is required of them in terms of answers.

Writing Skills

Many autistic students find handwriting extremely problematic. If this is the case then it is often opportune to provide the student with an alternative form of response. Most obvious is the use of a laptop or computer; some may prefer a scribe, or even in some cases verbal responses might be considered, followed by a transcription of the recorded responses.

Monotropic Style

If a student has a monotropic (single channelled) processing style then exams will likely be far more demanding for the student than if they were adept at multi-channelling. Moving from one mode of processing to another is likely to take a considerably lengthier time for the monotropic student; this can include moving from one task to the next, or moving from reading an exam paper to responding on a computer. In order to reduce risk of discrimination, it is highly advisable for the educational system to take this into account when examining students.

Possible Solutions

The following are possible solutions to some of the issues raised:

  • Educational ‘mentor’
  • Environmental adaptations
  • Temporal adjustments

Educational ‘mentor’

If required, it may be beneficial to have an educational mentor for autistic students. The role would categorically not be to assist the student in any way that would favour them in subject specific academia; rather, it would be to reduce issues raised by the individual’s autism to reduce risk of discrimination. The mentor may be in a position to ascertain whether the student has understood the questions posed, for example.

Environmental adaptations

These may include allowing the use of headphones to block out noises, allowing the student to take exams in an environment of their choosing (there are examples of students taking exams at home under invigilation, for example), or taking the exam in a room on their own.

Temporal adjustments

It may be highly beneficial for the student to be allowed extended time to take their exam. This might include time for breaks, as well as more time to allow for processing of information and formulation of responses. Many students simply cannot process information at the same speed as their peers; this has nothing to do with their academic knowledge, which may be sound, so to disallow the opportunity to engage with the exam in a manner that suits them in terms of processing time would be highly disadvantageous.

Hello – and explaination of what I am doing

I decided to set up a Blog (short for Web Log don’t you know!) to give those who are (possibly) interested in some of my views on autism and autism related topics. I am not representing SHU views (necessarily) – I am writing from my own experience and from sharing experiences individuals and families have shared with me. I am not a clinician, but do have decades of experience – personally and professionally – which I hope allows me to have some opinions that could be useful. If anyone wanted specific topics given an airing, do feel free to email me with suggestions: L.Beardon@shu.ac.uk