The ‘degree awarding gap’ (also known as the degree attainment gap), refers to the difference in the proportion of one group receiving a first/2:1 compared with another group.
The phrase ‘BME, or BAME, awarding gap’ refers to the difference between the proportion of White UK-domiciled students who are awarded a 1st or 2:1, and the proportion of UK-domiciled Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BME) students who are awarded the same degrees.
Research shows many factors can explain the difference in the final degree results for all students, including gender, socio-economic background and previous qualifications. However, when these factors are controlled, a gap based on the ethnicity still remains.
How Hallam compares to the national picture:
- The attainment gap at Hallam is above the national average at 19 percentage points (2018/2019)
For data at department and course level, access the BME Degree Awarding Gap Data dashboard hosted on The Source.
Addressing the degree awarding gap is a matter of social justice and fairness. In addition, if BME students are being disadvantaged by their university it is in contravention of the legal obligations for universities as set out in the Equality Act 2010 and the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000.
Perhaps more importantly there is a labour market premium attached to having a 1st or 2:1 as it can prohibit students from accessing certain jobs or careers. BME students already face significant discrimination in relation to access to and success in the workplace. In addition having a 1st or 2:1 is often a prerequisite to getting on to a post-graduate degree.
A number of research studies have been undertaken controlling for a wide range of other factors that might influence student outcomes. These have each concluded that even though the gap was reduced, ethnicity remains a significant factor.
As the Office for Students notes, ‘The differences in degree outcomes between ethnic groups persist even when controlling for other factors which may affect attainment such as the student’s age, sex, course and qualifications on entry. Since the differences in outcomes cannot be explained by these common factors, this suggests that the cause of the under performance of BME students may be associated with other factors such as institutional structures and curriculum’.
In other words BME students face an ethnic penalty in higher education.
The cause of the gap is complex but can include:
- External factor: gender, disability, social deprivation, previous family educational experiences of HE, type of institution; home or campus-based
- Pre-entry: The quality of information, advice and guidance (IAG) given in schools and colleges, including the type of 16-18 courses studied (which can effect choice of university and course)
- Internal factor: course studied (as some course award more 1st and 2:1s but have fewer BME students); racism; problems of segregation; low teacher expectations; lack of role models; feelings of isolation or a lack of belonging; staff expectations/prejudiced attitudes associated with linguistic competence; students’ expectations; discriminatory practices – teaching, learning, assessment and student support; Whiteness and White privilege; undervaluing/under-challenging BME students all have an effect.
Inter and intra personal factors: for example
Course studied (as some courses award more good honours but have fewer BME students); structural racism – discriminatory practices in teaching, learning, assessment and student support; institutional racism and a lack of understanding of how whiteness impacts on the student experience; intrapersonal factors such as staff expectations and prejudiced attitudes associated with linguistic competence; and interpersonal factors which may be attributed to the lack of role models feelings of isolation or a lack of belonging.