Tag Archives: simulation

Using augmented reality to bring inanimate objects in your teaching to life

Mandy Brailsford & Deborah Clark

Parallel session 3, CoLab 3.2

Key themes:
Embedding augmented reality with intermediate-fidelity simulation; Increasing realism; Transference to clinical and teaching practice; Tablet-based teaching.

To demonstrate the use of Augmented Reality within programmes giving delegates the opportunity to create an example themselves within the workshop.
To explore the underpinning pedagogy behind the use of this technology for enhancing not only engagement but realism and transference to practice.

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Detailed Outline
This interactive workshop will discuss an innovative approach developed by technologists and academics at Sheffield Hallam University aimed at enhancing realism and student engagement within simulation-based activities.

The aim of simulation in replicating elements of real-world situations to develop learning through action and interaction is well documented (Gaba, 2004). However the degree to which participants immerse themselves in the simulated environment is likely to be influenced by authenticity and realism, particularly if those participants have limited prior real-world experience to draw on. Ailnier et al (2006) established the benefits of intermediate fidelity simulation within undergraduate healthcare education, however, due to the limitations of this level of simulation the educator is required to actively participate in the scenario providing the necessary interaction between the participant and the ‘patient’. This may act as a barrier when attempting to deliver a realistic clinical scenario. Alternative strategies for providing participants with key interactions whilst increasing the authenticity of simulation were therefore sought within the limited resources available.

The resulting approach taken by staff at Sheffield Hallam University was to integrate Augmented Reality (AR) with simulation in an attempt to improve authenticity and patient interaction. Computer generated imagery (CGI) and patient videos were superimposed on the simulated scenario via a tablet computer held by the participants. Multiple scenarios across a varied field of interprofessional teams were developed and utilised via a readily available augmented reality application.

By using AR within these intermediate-fidelity simulated environments, it has afforded the educator the ability to observe the students’, rather than having to participate actively within the scenario. This has enabled the educator to integrate student attitudes and behaviour towards the simulated patient within facilitated discussions, incorporating key elements such as communication and compassion.

This session will include audience participation to encourage the development and utilisation of resources as well as discussions for possible wider implementation. Augmented reality will be used by delegates to turn inanimate objects into people or pre-recorded media so that the delegates themselves can judge whether the use of this technology could enhance students learning in their contexts:

Some examples of potential possibilities are:
• Bringing any situation to life where the student can rehearse communication or behavior skills without the need for actors or an academic peer ‘role playing’ the situation
• Immersing the student in a situation where they are to respond to something they have seen

Embedding skills and employability: a programme based approach

Tanya Miles-Berry, Nichola Cadet & Shawna McCoy
@thrmb / @nicholacadet

Parallel session 1, Short Paper 1.2

Listen to the presentation (opens in new window)

Short Abstract
Criminology students are supported to prepare for the jobs market both inter and extra-curricularly by integrating study skills over each academic year; scaffolding to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, and utilising complex strategies to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills as they progress.
Work related learning was similarly embedded; on an extra-curricular basis from year 1, and within the curriculum through years 2 and 3.

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Detailed Outline
In order that students can gain the maximum benefit from their degree at SHU, we embedded a number of initiatives to support them during their study, and prepare them for the jobs market.

As well as integrating study skills more completely within their degree over each academic year, we also developed a scaffolding approach to ensure that once foundational knowledge is established a focus on teaching critical reflection as a key skill (Gibbs, 2013) encourages them to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses in relation to work related learning opportunities outlined below. Furthermore, this focus on ‘self’ (Hinchcliffe & Jolly, 2011) encouraged students to use more complex strategies to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills as they progress, whilst maintaining a focus on their future career aspirations (CSAP, 2009; McKinnon & McCrae, 2012).

This structured approach was also used to embed work related learning, with the aim that students would engage with work experience opportunities on an extra-curricular basis from year 1, and then use those opportunities within the curriculum through years 2 and 3. This holistic approach to work related learning opportunities encompasses a range of modules, from actual placements and ‘service learning’ (Deeley, 2010; Davies et al, 2014), to simulation, in an attempt to show the realities of related professions (Rockell, 2009) and extra-curricular opportunities offered through our annual Volunteer Fair (Stevenson & Clegg, 2011).

This session will look more closely at what was developed, how these developments work in practice, and changes that are in the process of being made as a result of our current revalidation process.

In addition, feedback from an independent evaluation of the simulation module at level 6 will be included, along with feedback from various employers and students involved in some of our initiatives, in order to evidence their perceptions and reflections.

Davis, J, Cronley C, Madden E.E & Kim Y.K (2014) ‘Service-learning Use in Criminal Justice Education’. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 25: 2 157-174
Deeley S.J (2010) ‘Service-learning: Thinking outside the box’. Active Learning in Higher Education 11 (1): 43-53
Gibbs G (2013) ‘Reflections on the changing nature of educational development’. International Journal for Academic Development 18; 1 4 – 14
Hinchcliffe G.W & Jolly A (2011) ‘Graduate identity and employability’ British Educational Research Journal 37 (4) 563-584
McKinnon S & McCrae J (2012) ‘Closing the gap; preparing computing students for employment through embedding work-related learning in the taught curriculum’. Industry and Higher education 26 (4) 317 – 322
Rockell B.A (2009) ‘Challenging What they All Know: Integrating the Real/Reel World into Criminal Justice Pedagogy’. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 20 (1) 75-92
Stevenson J & Clegg S (2011) ‘Possible selves: students orientating themselves towards the future through extracurricular activity’. British Educational Research Journal 37 (2) 231-246

Establishing effective communities of practice (2014)

Jill Dickinson & Vicky Thirlaway

Against a backdrop of increased student fees and decreased employment opportunities, simulation has established itself as a key ingredient in the success of many H.E. courses.

In simulation modules students are encouraged to work together and with their tutor to develop not only substantive knowledge but also their transferable skills. Having experienced “work” within a comparatively safe simulation environment, students can then feel more confident in applying that knowledge within the workplace; both during work placement opportunities and upon gaining graduate employment .

In a simulation module students take responsibility for their learning; this helps to develop their confidence in problem solving. Placing the students at the centre of their learning not only inspires them but also helps to develop their confidence to take on higher-level modules involving problem-based learning opportunities within an actual work-place environment .  However, whilst the focus of any simulation must necessarily be on the students, the role of the supervisor remains paramount in ensuring a successful experience.

Creation of communities of practice  where students are encouraged to work together to solve practical problems encourages them to take ownership of their work, as they collaboratively explore the application of different ideas and, in doing so, create a new shared knowledge base .

Using the recently-validated, 40 credit Clinical Legal Education module as a case-study, tutors have found that there is generally a direct correlation between the standards that they set for the group and the group’s engagement with the module. Expectations are made clear from the very beginning of the module as to attendance, participation, the quantity of work involved and the quality of work expected. In return, students are supervised by experienced tutors who provide inspiration,  guidance and support, whilst at the same time taking care not to overly direct the students’ learning.

Tutors on simulation modules need to ensure they foster a teaching and learning environment which creates optimal levels of engagement, and results in optimal levels of performance.[1] There is a delicate balance to be drawn;[2] whilst the students may not have experienced a simulation module before, such modules also need to act as key stepping stones towards higher-level, work-based learning opportunities, work placements and graduate employment. Students’ anxieties at the start of the module focus upon concerns about group work, and a tendency to seek direction from the tutor. Tutors find that students develop confidence throughout the year to take the initiative in working out what needs to happen next, and proactively progress their “client’s case”.

A discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of service user involvement in student assessment (2014)

James Harcus, Sarah Naylor & Marcus Elkington

This presentation will discuss an evaluation of service user involvement in assessing first year diagnostic radiography students prior to attending placement. Service users took the role of patients during a simulation exercise undertaken in a general X-ray room.

In recent years the importance of involving service users in all aspects of health care has been promoted (Repper and Breeze 2007); this includes being involved in the education of health care workers (Lathlean et al 2006). The evaluation of service user involvement in the education of health care workers in limited (Repper and Breeze 2007), as is any literature about service user involvement outside nursing, mental health and social work (Towle et al 2010).

Feedback obtained via email and face to face from academic staff, service users and students using open questions will be used to prompt discussion about the benefits to students of service user involvement which are; that it gave the exercise a more realistic feel and is an excellent exercise in terms of developing patient care, communication and positioning skills.

There will also be a discussion about the benefits to service users, who in this instance enjoyed the experience. Issues for consideration include travel to the venue and the physical demands on the service user. Concerns highlighted by previous authors of preparation and remuneration had been addressed prior to the exercise (Repper and Breeze 2007).

There is increasing diversity in the ways in which service users are involved in education (Towle et al 2010). Service user involvement as patients in a simulation exercise for assessing students has proved successful.


284 – Exploring ways of using formative feedback to improve student engagement with simulation modules – Vicky Thirlaway, Amy Musgrove

It is now well established that courses should seek to use Assessment for Learning, rather than Assessment of Learning, and that the form of assessment can have a significant impact on the student experience (the “backwash” effect described by Biggs (1996)). A key component of any assessment for learning strategy is to include authentic assessment tasks which the students can see have a relationship to the “real world” (McDowell, 2012; Gikandi et al., 2011). Fostering student engagement with a “make believe” scenario is a challenge: the activities must be perceived to be “credible” if students are going to engage with them.

Simulation can be an effective way of allowing students to contextualise their learning and develop the skills they will need to turn theory into practice. It can, therefore, have a role to play in developing employability skills.

Research demonstrates that formative assessment and feedback can significantly improve student performance (Black and Wiliam, 1998) and arguably, this is even more crucial when the assessment measures skills of application that the student may not have had to demonstrate in their previous educational experiences (Ramaprasad, 1983; Sadler, 1989 cited in Jordan, 2012).  Tutors often feel that students fail to engage with formative assessment, and take little notice of feedback provided (Orsmond et al., 2013).

This presentation will argue that cohorts of students are primarily strategic learners, and therefore are reluctant to engage with learning activities that do not directly feed into assessment, even where they acknowledge the validity of the exercise (Coles, 2009). It will be suggested that “formative” assessment should be compulsory and, therefore, must be part of the totality of summative assessment on the module. We have some experience of embedding compulsory formative assessment and feedback within a simulation exercise. The presentation will evaluate the successes and shortcomings of our experience, and consider alternative ways of providing formative feedback within the simulation whilst maintaining the authenticity of the task and the credibility of the summative assessment.


Biggs JB (1996) “Assessing learning quality: Reconciling institutional, staff and educational demands” Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 21: 5–16.

Black, P and Wiliam, D (1998) “Assessment and classroom learning” Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice” 5(1): 7-73

Cauley, K, M and McMillan, J. H (2010) “Formative Assessment Techniques to support student motivation and achievement” The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83:1, 1-6

Carless, D, D. Salter, M, Yang, and J. Lam. (2011) “Developing sustainable feedback practices” Studies in Higher Education 36, no. 4: 395–407.

Clark, I (2008) “Assessment is for Learning: Formative Assessment and Positive Learning Interactions” Florida Journal of Educational Adminsitration & Policy 2(1): 1-15

Clarke, I (2012) “Formative Assessment: Assessment is for self-regulated learning” Educ Psychol Rev, 24, 205-249

Coles, C (2009) “The Role of New Technology in Improving Engagement among Law Students in Higher Education”, Journal of Information, Law & Technology (JILT), 3, <http://go.warwick.ac.uk/jilt/2009_3/coles>

Duncan, N. (2007) “Feedforward’: Improving students’ use of tutors’ comments.” Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 32, no. 3: 271–83.

Gikandi, J. W, Morrow, D and Davis, N. E (2011) “Online formative assessment in higher education: A review of the literature” Computers and Education, 57, 2333-2351

Handley, K, Price, M and Millar, J (2011) “Beyond ‘doing time’: Investigating the concept of student engagement with feedback” Oxford Review of Education, vol37, No.4, Aug 2011, 543-560

Jordan, S (2012) “Student engagement with assessment and feedback: Some lessons from short-answer free-text e-assessment questions” Computers and Education, 818-834

Mann, S.J. (2001) “Alternative perspectives on the student experience: alienation and engagement” Studies in Higher Education, 26(1): 7-19

McDowell, L. ‘Assessment for Learning’ in L. Clouder & Broughan (eds) (2012) “Improving Student Engagement and Development Through Assessment” London: Taylor & Francis

Orsmond, P, Maw, S, Park, S, Gomez, S & Crook, A. (2013): Moving feedback forward: theory to practice, Assessment & Evaluation in HigherEducation, 38:2, 240-252

Parkin, H. J, Hepplestone, S, Holden, G Irwin, B and Thorpe, L (2012) “A role for technology in enhancing students’ engagement with feedback” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, Vo.37, No.8, Dec 2012, 963-973

Price, M, Handley, K and Millar, J (2011) “Feedback: Focusing attention on engagement.” Studies in Higher Education, Vol.36, No.8, Dec 2011, 879-896

Schartel, S. A (2012) “Giving Feedback: An integral part of education” Best Practice and Clinical Anaesthesiology, 26, 77-87

Wingate, U (2010) “The impact of formative feedback on the development of academic writing” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, vol.35, No.5, Aug 2010, 519-533

284 Final power point SHU conference

260 – A Cyber Campus Assessment Study – Louis Nisiotis, Martin Beer, Elizabeth Uruchurtu

Strand: The Technology-Enhanced Course.

 Anticipated outcomes: This paper aims to present the findings of an assessment study conducted for the needs of my PhD research. This study investigates the extent to which the SHU3DED cyber campus functionality can support communication, collaboration, co-existence and active participation (3CP) among users in the virtual world.

Session outline: Education has been identified as a very important component of life, allowing people to develop the knowledge and skills required by the industry (Warnock, 1978). Due to chronic illness, impairments, medical conditions or other reasons, some students face environmental and/or social barriers that restrict or exclude them from physically attending University. This research thus, investigates the use of Multi-User Virtual Environments as an alternative way of supporting students who have been away or cannot physically attend University on regular basis.

By developing an inclusive learning environment capable to promote social collaboration, active participation and the ability to improve the student experience (Brunswick, 2009), we aim to address user requirements, support and enhance distant learning experience and eliminate some exclusion barriers over the network using a state of the art 3D environment.  For this reason, SHU3DED cyber campus prototype has been developed as a proof of concept and to conduct experiments with.

In order to use the prototype to conduct such an empirical study, it is necessary to assess and evaluate its functionality, for which a series of experiments have been performed. The aim of these experiments was to investigate the extent to which the functionality of the prototype developed, can support a particular set of attributes that we identified that have potential influences in the promotion of inclusion of all students in a virtual environment that provide flexible modes of representing activities, enables learning for all situation and does not have “a “poor relation” to physical inclusion anymore.” (Sheehy, 2010). The attributes under investigation are Collaboration, Communication, Co-existence and Active Participation (3CP) of users in the virtual world.

This paper shall present the results of this study in order to initiate a constructive discussion around the potential use of cyber campuses in teaching and learning to support the technology-enhanced course. The results of this study are very positive.

Session activities for engagement: Discussion based on the study results, literature evidence, benefits / drawbacks and educational potentials of the use of cyber campus in teaching and learning.

References: Official SHU3DED Website: http://www.learninvw.com


BRUNSWICK, N. N. 2009. Inclusive Education.

SHEEHY, K. 2010. Virtual environments: Issues and opportunities for researching inclusive educational practices. Researching Learning in Virtual Worlds, 1-15.

WARNOCK, M. 1978. The Warnock Report, Special Education Needs. Available: http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/warnock/.


259 – A Virtual Tour of the SHU3DED Cyber Campus – Louis Nisiotis, Martin Beer, Elizabeth Uruchurtu

Strand:The Technology-Enhanced Course. Anticipated outcomes: This CoLab workshop proposal aims to foster a virtual activity and discussion around the ability of Multi-User Virtual Environments to support teaching needs and facilitate learning.

Session outline: Cyber campuses are specially designed meeting points that operate on Multi-User Virtual Environments, where users can gather virtually and exchange learning materials, communicate and collaborate in a state of the art 3D environment (Prasolova et al., 2006). Facilitated on networked computerized systems, cyber campuses offers navigational spaces that support a variety of multimedia presentation techniques (Kallonis and Sampson, 2010), synchronous interaction and communication, enhancing the socialization among users (Freitas et al., 2010). By incorporating advanced graphics and communication technologies, cyber campuses support real time interaction between users and objects designed in the virtual world (Cronin, 2011), providing the “immersion” feeling to the user of actually being there (Beer et al., 2002).

Cyber campuses are considered an effective vehicle for learning support (Livingstone et al., 2008), so the need arises to identify the aspects of the teaching and learning process that this solution enhance as compared to traditional E-Learning. In particular, it is necessary to identify the factors making this model a strong solution to use for learning support and to what extent it enhances the learning experiences of people who are away from University. To investigate this, the SHU3DED Cyber Campus has been developed to conduct experiments with.

SHU3DED is a cyber campus prototype developed for the needs of my research, using the opensimulator virtual world package, to use as a proof of concept and to conduct a series of empirical studies with. The cyber campus has been developed following best practice applied in other cyber campuses, but the main driver was the “virtual school” concept as demonstrated by the Occupational Therapy Internet School (OTIS) project. This was an innovative and sophisticated system for its time (1999), capable of managing educational resources, handles communications and support educational activities through a virtual environment over the Internet. SHU3DED aims to develop this functionality in a modern virtual environment, for which MOODLE Leaning Management System (LMS) has been used and we will further explore some of the advances made learning support.

Having almost completely replicating the OTIS project theory and practice, we can say that SHU3DED is what OTIS project should have look like if it was implemented using the technology of today.

In this proposed workshop, attendees will be gathered in a lab setting, allocated a pre-configured workstation and participate in a virtual tour of SHU3DED cyber campus using a virtual representation of them selves (Avatar). During this tour, demonstration of the various facilities that cyber campus offers for teaching and learning support will be performed to initiate a constructive “in-world chat” discussion among the attendees through the chat facilities that are provided by the system. This discussion will be based on the potential context and setting they could use such solution for their teaching needs and how it could possibly enhance the learning experience of their students.

Session activities for engagement: A virtual navigation and communication among users activity, facilitated in the SHU3DED virtual world.

References: Official SHU3DED Website: http://www.learninvw.com


BEER, M., SLACK, F. & ARMITT, G. Community Building and Virtual Teamwork in an Online Learning Environment.  Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’03), 2002.

CRONIN, P. 2011. An exploratory case study in the use of Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVE) to support and enhance a community of practice. Master of Science in Technology & Learning, University of Dublin.

FREITAS, S., REBOLLEDO-MENDEZ, G., LIAROKAPIS, F., MAGOULAS, G. & POULOVASSILIS, A. 2010. Learning as immersive experiences: Using the four-dimensional framework for designing and evaluating immersive learning experiences in a virtual word. British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol 41, pp. 69-85.

KALLONIS, P. & SAMPSON, D. 2010. Implementing a 3D Virtual Classroom Simulation for Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education. Putrajaya, Malaysia.

LIVINGSTONE, D., KEMP, J. & EDGAR, E. 2008. From Multi-User Virtual Environment to 3D Virtual Learning Environment. Alt-J, Vol 16, 139-150.

PRASOLOVA, E., SOURIN, A. & SOURINA, O. 2006. Cybercampouses: Design Issues and Future Directions. Visual Computer Journal.



2012 The use of a mobile virtual immersive tool (VERT) to encourage student engagement and apply theory to practice in the classroom

Sarah Smith and Robert Appleyard


The Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) suite (at collegiate crescent campus) is specially designed to offer a 3 dimensional immersive experience for students and is currently used in the core study of anatomy and technical practise of radiotherapy as well as being used in a number of ways by other subject groups across the faculty. The interactive and visual elements of this tool are especially suited to the demonstration of complex interaction and comprehension. However a mobile (laptop based) version has enabled wider and different applications to be explored.

The traditional staged approach of learning the underpinning anatomy and physiology of a body system. Followed by the theoretical, lecture based, learning of oncology and radiotherapy technique; with actual application having to wait until practice placements; can now be challenged.

Through practical demonstration in the classroom it was possible to integrate these key stages of learning and provide an engaging experience for students. This applied learning approach also encouraged student’s to discuss differing approaches to practice they had experienced in placement learning, facilitating a problem based learning approach, drawing on their own experience as well as the supporting evidence base. Peer review of this revised approach to the teaching of the Head & Neck Region identified a number of positive aspects including positive student reaction, enhanced engagement and apparent comprehension of complex information.

A thunderstorm session would allow for visual screen cast style demonstration of the tool itself and key parts of the planning, structure and delivery of a learning package. A ‘top tips’ approach with evaluation from peer review and student feedback.

A7 – (EN26, EN17, EN27, EN29) 11.00

2012 Teaching students about ethnicity and disability: how SimMan saved the world of practice education

Alex McClimens, Robin Lewis and Jacqui Brewster

With faculty funding we have been delivering the Elvis Project[1]. Over the past 12 months we have been working with local partners to develop a blended approach to learning for our students on the combined Learning Disability/Social Work degree programme.

This involves 

  • theory and concepts delivered in standard classroom settings 
  • the use of Blackboard to present background information to develop a narrative about a ‘virtual’ client/patient 
  • clinical lab work with SimMan 

Our client/patient is called Ahmed and he has multiple and profound learning disability. He is of Pakistani/Kashmiri origin and his family live in Rotherham. With the information we receive from our partners in Rotherham we provide the students with enough raw information to construct packages of care devised to fit imagined scenarios. We supplement these with clinical sessions with SimMan where students get hands on experience of managing care situations. 

The poster highlights some of the thinking behind the project. For more detail visit

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp: What can it teach us today? Journal of Intellectual Disabilities March 2012 16: 17-27, 2012 doi:10.1177/1744629512438037  

[1] Enhanced Learning – Virtual Improvised Scenarios

(EN24) 14.00


2012 Embedding innovative practice: employers as partners in ensuring graduate employability

Tanya Miles-Berry and Nicola Cadet

Criminology has run two successful Employability Fairs, with a third planned for September. This has been assisted with embedding work related learning into our new Programme, and a number of initiatives are now being impacted as a direct result. 

This paper will outline the function of the Fair, how this has provided a number of different learning opportunities for our students to enhance experience and evidence graduate attributes through proactive and meaningful engagement with employers across the sector. 

We offer 2 modules, one at level 5 and one at level 6 where volunteering and employment roles attract credit through space being created for work related activities, complemented with face to face teaching around making links between practice, theory, academic knowledge and reflection to assess their learning and understanding of the volunteer opportunity they have undertaken. 

We also offer simulation modules which have been devised in collaboration with outside agencies, with the whole module, from design, to implementation and assessment being tailored to the graduate attributes identified by employers in our sector. 

The links with Practitioners through the Employability Fair proved useful, in opening opportunities for volunteering and placements in the first instance, with an additional event planned for the Practitioners themselves to identify further opportunities for our students.  

The paper will conclude that staff skills required to broker and foster such relationships are as critical as the skills being developed by students themselves.  Furthermore, the employer offer has to be explicit and transparent.  

It is our contention that ‘Employability Fairs’ can be emulated across the University and once these relationships have been established, further opportunities for collaboration will follow. These opportunities can be developed on a Departmental level and will not necessarily follow the model that we have outlined. 

A number of barriers to success have been established: 

Firstly, as a University wide Agenda, there is a danger that specific agencies may be over saturated with requests due to both duplication and a lack of awareness that an agency has already become involved. This in turn may endanger the initial relationship which has been established and lead to that relationship breaking down. 

Secondly, a number of organisations/individuals may become involved with a specific subject group – even though there is clear potential for cross-departmental or even cross-faculty involvement particularly across joint programmes. 

If we are to encourage true collaboration across both Department and Faculty, we need to ensure that a working policy is devised in order that the relationships which are cultivated on an individual basis are not jeopardised in our quest to secure work based learning opportunities for our students across the University. 

Furthermore, we will argue that fundamental to this policy is the need to ensure that a specific individual is identified within each Department, who will meet across Faculty to ensure that the policy can be developed and sustained.

Click to presentation:  Embedding innovative practice: employers as partners in ensuring graduate employability

A2 – (FU10) 11.00