Seven Principles

Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education

In 1987 Arthur Chickering and Zelda Gamson produced seven principles for good practice. An examination of these principles provides a sound basis for developing an engaging learner-centred curriculum. They are explored throughout this toolkit and listed here. Adaptations have been made of the principles which continue to be relevant to good teaching.

  1. Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact
  2. Good Practice Encourages Cooperation among Students
  3. Good Practice Encourages Active Learning
  4. Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback
  5. Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task
  6. Good Practice Communicates High Expectations
  7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning


Chickering, & Gamson. (1989). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Biochemical Education, 17(3), 140-141. Available online

Chickering, Arthur W., & Gamson, Zelda F. (1999). Development and Adaptations of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 75-81.

Chickering, A., & Gamson, Z. (2001, April 01). Implementing the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education: Technology as lever. Accounting Education News, pp. 9-10.